نوع مقاله : پژوهشی
1 دانشجوی دکتری، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران
2 دانشیار، دانشگاه تهران، تهران. ایران
3 استادیار، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران
عنوان مقاله [English]
Aim and Introduction: To analyze the impact of institutions on the level of entrepreneurship, growth and ultimately economic development, we need to examine the data over time; and because systematic statistics on entrepreneurship have not yet been provided, the empirical literature linking entrepreneurship and institutions is still recognized as an emerging field. Most studies to date have this is how the institutional framework determines the level of entrepreneurial activity. Culture as one of the prominent institutional characteristics influences the level of entrepreneurial activities. In fact, entrepreneurial perception is considered as a part of local culture that stimulates productive entrepreneurship. One way to overcome these limitations are the institutions that are needed to describe the gift of entrepreneurship in different regions. This idea may be useful in understanding how entrepreneurship works in different regions. In view of the above, the purpose of this study is to identify and analyze previous studies conducted in the field of institutions that lead to the development of entrepreneurial activities in different regions.
Methodology: The method of this research is qualitative and has been done using meta-analysis. A meta-analysis is a qualitative study that examines information and findings extracted from other qualitative studies related to the same topic. As a result, the sample for meta-analysis consists of selected qualitative studies and based on their relationship with the research question. Hypertext is not an integrated review of the qualitative literature of the subject. Also, the analysis of secondary data and primary data is not from selected studies, but rather, the analysis of the findings of these studies. In other words, meta-analysis is the interpretive composition of the main data interpretations of the selected studies. In order to analyze the research data, two levels of open and axial coding have been used.
Findings: A review of selected research shows that physical infrastructure is one of the most important factors affecting the development of entrepreneurship at the regional level. Infrastructure includes roads, waterways and airports, efficient communication devices and integrated distribution channels. Areas with well-developed infrastructure enable entrepreneurs to identify market needs, respond quickly to them, and invest in new ones. In contrast, the lack of related infrastructure and basic services (health and financial care) can force people with the necessary entrepreneurial skills, knowledge and talent to relocate or prevent them from doing business at the regional level. Population size and income composition and distribution also affect demand for goods and services at the regional and local levels. Changes in population size lead to changes in aggregate demand for goods and services. Changes in population composition and income distribution reduce demand for certain goods and services and increase demand for others. A region can attract companies whose markets are compatible with its population composition and revenue level. Policies for the benefit of businesses at the regional level, especially those related to information and communication technology, are stimulated through institutions such as universities, science parks and venture capital firms. Markets are critical to identifying and seizing opportunities. Population size, composition and expansion, as well as income levels in a region, provide opportunities for new businesses to subsequently expand their markets to other regions.
Discussion and Conclusion: According to the research findings, regional entrepreneurship development with the main characteristics of growth and development in GDP, increasing the level and per capita employment in the region, increasing the rate of entrepreneurial activities and the rate of provincial innovation (number of patents registered), The institutional context, along with factors such as 1. Policy-making at three levels: national, regional and local; 2. Physical infrastructure including air infrastructure, rail infrastructure, road infrastructure, gas access, water access, electricity access, and 3- Commodity market or economic infrastructure including regional labor market, human capital, enterprise mix (SME and large) And the structure of the region's industry stimulated entrepreneurial activity. The importance of the dimensions of entrepreneurial regions does not mean that all entrepreneurial activities are influenced by regional conditions and variables, and certainly national components are also very important in describing entrepreneurial activities, which means that these conditions are more between countries and not between different regions. Countries change (for example, tax laws); Some conditions are also determined based on the characteristics of individuals. However, a wide range of empirical and theoretical findings suggest that in addition to the national framework, there are many other conditions that vary between different regions of a country and affect individuals' decisions about self-employment. The term "entrepreneurial atmosphere" integrates many of these regional characteristics that are at least able to influence the decision of local people to start and not to start a startup and even the future success and failure of a startup. Existence of programs to support entrepreneurship, perception, views and skills of the population about startups or the existence of support centers and promoters of startups, including universities with related fields and innovative companies, are examples of such characteristics of areas under the umbrella of entrepreneurship.