نوع مقاله : پژوهشی
1 دانشجوی دکتری، ، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران
2 گروه مدیریت بازرگانی، دانشکده مدیریت و حسابداری، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی
3 گروه مدیریت بازرگانی دانشکده مدیریت و حسابداری دانشگاه شهید بهشتی
عنوان مقاله [English]
Aims and Introduction. In the period of communication, future's communication, communication policies and planning have a special necessity; Because they are necessary to achieve and maintain a competitive advantages. In practice, an organization's communication with a particular product can occur in four general ways: in-house communication, ex-organizational communication with suppliers, ex-organizational communication with customers, and ex-organizational communication with other stakeholders. These connections must be planned and implemented in a way that strengthens the image and brand of the organization and the product. Insufficient ability of companies to communicate seamlessly with the internal and external environment leads to loss of opportunities and loss of competitiveness. With the advent of e-commerce, the fourth wave created the motivation to move from accessing customer summary information (to clarify the basic patterns in the second wave) to acquiring and working with customer information. This strategy developed relationships with individual customers and raised the need to pay more attention to marketing integration. Thus, the term IMC was extended to integrated marketing. Thus, the main purpose of this study is to identify and design a basic integrated marketing pattern.
Methodology. This study, with a pragmatic philosophical approach, surveyes the evolution of integrated marketing through a gradual process and seeks to know what integrated marketing patterns are and what practical effects and results these patterns can have. Considering Hunt's three-pronged pattern, integrated marketing and its basic concepts, namely marketing communications and integrated marketing communications (both at the micro levels of the marketing domain and the sum of the elements of the marketing mix and at the macro levels of the organization), even occasionally, recommended in the for-profit sector of small companies, market corners, and service organizations, as well as in the non-profit sector.
In terms of the nature of research data, the need to study the definitions and descriptions in the disciplines and scientific concepts of communication, marketing, organizational communication, managerial communication, marketing communication, management of marketing communication tools, integrated communication, integrated marketing communication, integrated brand communication, communication and public relations management so that it can achieve a common language of integration approach. This research tends more towards qualitative exploratory research. Regarding the degree of coordination between the content of the measurement tool and the purpose of the research, the validity of the content was also examined using the opinion of experts. To evaluate the content validity of the obtained codes quantitatively, two relative content validity coefficients (CVR) of Lawshe and content validity index (CVI) of Waltz and Basel are used.
Findings. Content analysis of 46 integrated marketing definitions and similar concepts performed using content analysis method. In order to examine the validity of codings, the opinions and suggestions of five experts familiar with the concepts of coding and marketing communications used. The relative validity coefficient of the core and selective content codes was 0.99, which indicates sufficient validity of the codes. Content validity index of core and selective codes were 0.93 and 0.88, respectively. The consensus of experts on the validity of pivotal and selective codings and the lack of code changes in revisions performed over a period of one month indicates the stability, representation, and accuracy of the codes and thus the reliability of the results. One of the research findings is the identification of three basic patterns of integrated marketing: thinking, speech and behavior. These three basic patterns used to design the core of an integrated marketing model. Identifying and designing an integrated marketing model can provide the necessary basis for presenting an integrated marketing theory.
Discussion and results. Integrated marketing has emerged as a natural evolutionary process in marketing communications that has undergone fundamental changes in at least three main areas: markets, media and communications, and consumers. These changes have taken place primarily with advances in information technology and have led to a major shift from product-centric mass marketing theories in the 1950s and 1960s to more customer-oriented, interactive, and measurable databases. Is. But integrated marketing shows that there is a need for more accurate identification of patterns associated with this phenomenon.
The basic model of integrated marketing can combine the concept and process of integrated marketing with more coherence and form the basis of theorizing in this field in different frameworks.
As marketing enters a new era in which consumers determine when, where, and how to use media, marketing needs to adapt and change. In the new marketing renaissance, when and where do customers and stakeholders want to hear it? Therefore, marketers must first understand the customer and then develop interdisciplinary plans to get the best customers at the time and place where the brands and messages are most appropriate to build long-term profitable relationships and build customer trust. Get and keep. The organization with long-term and strategic planning of its communications and by integrating the communications process in the environment inside and outside its borders must create and transfer values, production and innovation in any type of products, speech and behavior before performing any communication activities. Coordinate and make a sound to increase the level of trust and confidence in the organization in the business environment through interaction with stakeholders.
The core of integrated marketing lies in the principles of developing customer-oriented and data-driven communication programs. The strategic advantage of transferring consumer data to customer applied knowledge requires an understanding of what the data represents and how the database managed as a strategic communication tool. Using the proposed model (thinking, speech, and behavior), the organization expected to be able to solve these problems by adopting a knowledge-based market-based approach: 1) know itself well, 2) identify all its communication channels 3) Identify the reasons for its relationship and its levels (who and why?), 4) identify its audience and stakeholders (for whom); 5) Specify its direct and clear content and message (what); 6) Define his / her communication tools accurately (how); And finally 7) follow up and analyze the message sent and the results obtained (feedback).