نوع مقاله : پژوهشی
1 کارشناسی ارشد مدیریت بازرگانی - دانشکده مدیریت و حسابداری - پردیس فارابی دانشگاه تهران
2 عضو هیات علمی دانشکده مدیریت و حسابداری پردیس فارابی دانشگاه تهران
3 استاد مدیریت بازرگانی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس
عنوان مقاله [English]
Aim and introduction: coopetition means the simultaneous existence of cooperation and competition between rivals in the particular industry. In fact, Coopetition is defined as a dynamic and contradictory relationship that occurs when two companies cooperate together in some areas, such as strategic alliances, but at the same time compete with each other in other areas. This strategy has met with great success among companies in the last two decades; Thus the number of published articles in this area has exponentially increased in the recent years. But the lack of a comprehensive framework for the factors influencing the formation of coopetition in the literature of this field is felt. The purpose of this study is to providing a framework for factors influencing on the formation of competitive relationship.
Methodology: In this study, systematic review method has been used to integrate and aggregate relevant findings. The systematic review is done in three stages which include planning, implementation and reporting. Each stage includes some many different and separate steps. To begin the systematic review process first, the articles were searched in five databases containing the keyword of coopetition in their title, abstract, and keywords. The language of all researched studies is English. Researchers were able to find 702 available articles. Then the articles were screened based on the lack of relationship between the title, abstract and their content with the main subject of the research. In the end, 99 articles were selected for coding. The journal Impact factor Index was used to evaluate the quality of the articles used in this study. data extraction process is as follows: any factor that these articles considered to be effective on coopetition was considered as code in this study. Then the Codes that were conceptually close to each other, were grouped together and presented as a concepts and in the same way, close concepts created categories.
Findings: The results show that all the factors affecting the formation of coopetitive relationships fall into the final two categories of Antecedents and motivations. The category of Antecedents includes 4 sub-categories that are: environmental changes, industry conditions, characteristics of rivals and company features. In fact, Antecedent describe the conditions that can cause and lead to the coopetition relationships. On the other hand, there are some factors that play the role of moving engine in order to shape coopetition relationship. These factors are called motivation of coopetition. The category of motivations include 10 concepts: Creating value and benefits, Strategic power, sharing Cost and risk, Innovation, Market access, Product development, Economic scale, sharing Knowledge and processes, Intellectual Property and Standardization.
Discussion and conclusion: Despite research identifying some of the factors affecting coopetition, no comprehensive research has focused on factors affecting coopetition. Therefore, in order to fill this scientific gap with a systematic review method, the researchers of this study analyzed all the researches that had been done in this field and provided a framework of factors affecting coopetition. The proposed research framework includes antecedents and motivations of coopetition, that can help future researchers and also firms comprehensively understand the factors shaping a competitive relationship. Theoretically, and extracting a comprehensive list of factors, this research is innovative in the field of coopetition.
The results show that all the factors affecting the formation of coopetitive relationships fall into the final two categories of Antecedents and motivations. The category of Antecedents includes 4 sub-categories that are: environmental changes, industry conditions, characteristics of rivals and company features.: In fact, Antecedent describe the conditions that can cause and lead to the coopetition relationships. On the other hand, there are some factors that play the role of moving engine in order to shape coopetition relationship. These factors are called motivation of coopetition.