نوع مقاله : پژوهشی
1 استاد دانشکده مهندسی متالورژی و مواد و رئیس پارک علم و فناوری دانشگاه تهران
2 گروه مدیریت بازرگانی، دانشکده مدیریت، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران
3 دکتری سیاست گذاری علم و فناوری دانشگاه مازندران، بابلسر
عنوان مقاله [English]
Aim and Introduction: Innovative economy has brought about fundamental changes and various opportunities for cities and businesses so that nowadays cities have turned to an innovation model based on "proximity " in order to attract the new generation of technology needed by companies and their industries. The required talents also prefer lifestyles and activities in urban environments, and entrepreneurial, innovative, and socially responsible universities are one of the key tools for achieving the goals of an innovative and knowledge-based economy. Area of Innovation is a specific area with its own management team that aims to economical development by promoting and attracting selected innovative businesses. Successful areas of innovation are important because they attract innovative industries, entrepreneurs and innovators as magnets.
Methodology: This research was conducted with a qualitative approach and for this purpose, after reviewing previous studies, 10 world-famous cases in the field of creating an area of innovation were reviewed, then interviews were conducted with experts in the field of innovation in the country.
Findings: By coding the data obtained from the review of global case study texts and interviews, the area of innovation model for the University of Tehran was suggested including 9 elements: 1) governance, policy, management and supervision, 2) functions of the area of innovation 3) characteristics of the are of innovation 4) Obstacles to launching and developing the area of innovation 5) area of innovation clusters, 6) area of innovation actors, 7) are of innovation communications, 8) are of innovation financing, 9) Commercialization of ideas.
Conclusion and Discussion: In terms of governance and policy, it is necessary to open the economy and connect the area of innovation to international markets, diversify the economic activities of the region, create a competitive cost policy for the region, plan branding of the region, pay attention to sustainable development and environment, strong industry relationship University - Government and citizens, facilitate the licensing and approval processes. In the managerial and supervisory dimension, multi-sectoral and multi-ownership management with more participation of the private and public sectors is recommended. The functions of the area of innovation are development in economic dimensions, socio-cultural development, development of entrepreneurship and business, personal empowerment and improvement of life. Area of innovation features are divided into hard, physical, tangible features and soft, intangible and non-physical features. Hard, physical and tangible features include the creation of pedestrian and bicycle paths, advanced public transportation and connection to key commercial and industrial points with the city through the construction of highways and subways, green area of innovation and attention to environmental issues and waste recycling, public green space and attention to the visual characteristics of the area, advanced technology infrastructure, smart area of innovation and the use of new telecommunications networks, new centralized control systems for heating and cooling pneumatic waste collection system, new energy network and clean energy, creative accommodation options and the availability of cheap accommodation, hotels and hostels, building an area-specific symbol such as a tower, creating a shared workspace, creating interaction spaces, creating a flexible office, commercial and laboratory space rental platform, a variety of facilities with Multiple use and establishment of restaurants, art centers, commercial centers, educational and cultural centers, entertainment centers, modern centers for festivals, concerts and exhibitions, preservation of historical monuments and revival of old symbols to attract tourists to the area, establishment of international growth centers, establishment of top and international universities in the region, establishment of excellent and world-class research centers, the presence of leading innovative companies, removal of the physical fence of universities and the possibility of communication with citizens taking into account the criteria of the Ministry of Cultural Heritage, Tourism and Handicrafts, restoration of heritage and historical, cultural and tourism buildings, Existence of special spaces and facilities for participation and education of children and adolescents, youth and women, existence of hypermarkets and restaurants and book cafes, health centers and clinics, hospitals and laboratories in the area of innovation, existence of cultural centers, Art, sports, entertainment and requirements in the area of innovation such as publishers, gym, swimming pool, cinema, museum.
Soft, intangible and non-physical features are other features of the area of innovation that emphasize natural and organic growth, the presence of talent around it, bottom-up growth and community participation, holding exhibitions, events and festivals in Area of innovation, holding working breakfasts between universities and companies based in the district and citizens, holding workshops, meetings and sympathy with the presence of citizens, creating associations and recruiting different members of the community, creating social platforms for voluntary activities to help students and the elderly, the establishment of non-governmental organizations in the district, the establishment of a consortium of cooperation between key actors in the area of innovation, facilitating access to capital and financing options, attractive tax plans and subsidies, providing programs and incentives to attract Foreign direct investment, professional and industry-friendly education, investment in research and development to stimulate talent, investment in education, the establishment of international schools in the area and education in industry from elementary school, the existence of creative schools and student clubs and entrepreneur and talent search, attracting immigrants and startups (Easy work visa), investment in vocational education and universities, demographic and cultural diversity, employment of women in innovative activities in the area of innovation, attention to social capital, the ability to create networking between individuals and companies and its promotion in the area , Enacting rules and regulations and transparency of licenses specific to the area of innovation, creating a culture and introducing people to new products - services and ideas, promoting entrepreneurial attitude in the area of innovation, the existence of incentives to participate in the area of innovation, formulating and establishing processes, Innovation mechanisms, platforms, networks or platforms pay attention to non-physical, intangible aspects, intellectual property rights, laws and regulations and mechanisms in the area of innovation. Barriers to the establishment and development of the area of innovation include perceptual and cognitive barriers, managerial and executive barriers, communication and information barriers, and environmental and cultural barriers that must be reduced or influenced as much as possible in order to solve them. Suggested clusters for the area of innovation of the University of Tehr aren, Information Technology Cluster, New Energy Technology Cluster, Health and Medical Technology and Innovation Cluster, Innovation and Media Technology Cluster, Culture, Art and Publishing, Biotechnology / Biotechnology Innovation Cluster And new technologies are in sports and of course it is recommended to prioritize and identify new clusters based on the needs. Actors in the Area of innovation of the University of Tehran, in addition to the University of Tehran, includes several other institutions and organizations. In terms of area of innovation communications, international communications include the internationalization of the area and the use of talents, centers, institutions, industries, businesses and international universities, and internal communications including the use of domestic power and the use of talents, centers, institutions, Industries, businesses, and domestic universities. Plan for area of innovation financing programs by venture capitalists, Innovation and Prosperity Funds, crowdfunding and financial innovations is necessary. To commercialize ideas, paying attention to networking, context building, and the core proce is critical. At the same time, the Innovation Department of the University of Tehran should try to differentiate itself based on its strategic geographical location and access to society, organic / natural growth, and access to talents.