عنوان مقاله [English]
Introduction: The competitiveness of the global market is considered as a challenge for employment. Individual institutions cooperate by creating opportunities for further development in clusters. Clusters appear as a suitable combination structure of cooperation and competition. Clusters are becoming a modern way to collaborate in both for-profit and non-profit organizations. Successful clusters increase the efficiency of individual companies and economic development in many countries. One of the important clusters and small and medium industries in Iran is the plastic industry, and especially the very important position of this industry is due to the presence of petrochemical companies that form the raw materials and feed of this industry. A large share of the economy and employment of developing countries is related to small and medium industries, and the plastic industry is one of these industries, and having a development pattern for these industries can open the way for its development. Therefore, the aim of this research is to present the development pattern of plastic industrial cluster in Iran.
Methodology: The method of research is qualitative in terms of data nature and developmental in terms of aims. The research participants consisted of 12 managers, marketing management professors and plastic industry owners, and the end of sampling was determined using theoretical saturation. Also, the data collection tool was a semi-structured interview, and to achieve the validity and reliability of the study, the criteria of validity and reliability were used in the research stages in order to achieve maximum certainty. Therefore, for the validity and reliability of the analysis of the interviews, it was checked several times in different time periods and it was confirmed with minor changes. The analysis of information and data was also done using the theme technique and through MAXQDA software.
Results and Discussion: The results show that the development indicators of Iran's plastic industrial cluster include "supply of raw materials (creation and identification of recycling units; center for supply, supply and distribution of raw materials; formation of raw material supply network)", "supply of machinery (design and mold "Building; benefiting from new technologies; supporting the production of domestic technologies)", "Development of sales and exports (marketing; product quality; branding)", "Government institutions (legal support; cooperation; financial support) ) "," Business service providers (after-sales service; manpower training; responsibility) "and" company management (having technical and specialized knowledge; time management; planning; communication skills; Influence and influence).
Conclusion: According to the obtained results, one of the indicators of the development of the plastic industry cluster is "supply of raw materials". A plastic unit needs to identify recycling units, raw material procurement and distribution center, and also form a raw material supply network for quick and convenient access to materials and reduce costs. Another indicator that has been identified for the development pattern of the country's plastic industry cluster is "supply of machinery". Providing machines refers to designing and molding, benefiting from new technologies and supporting technology production inside the country. "Sales and export development" is one of the indicators identified for the country's plastic industry cluster development pattern. Therefore, marketing, increasing product quality and branding of manufactured products can help to develop sales and exports. Another indicator identified for the country's plastic industry cluster development pattern is "government institutions". Through legal support, cooperation with plastic product manufacturing units and financial support, government institutions can help this industry in the development of employment and income generation. Another identified indicator for the plastic industry development pattern is "business service providers". This index is formed through the provision of after-sales services, training of human resources and responsibility. The important and final indicator identified for the development model of the country's plastic industry cluster is "company management". Company management with technical and specialized knowledge, time management, planning, communication skills, influence and influence among employees, including accepting criticism, standing up for the right, accepting mistakes, not justifying one's work when mistakes are made, having high self-confidence, Courage has been identified as an important indicator that many problems of the plastic industry can be solved with competent and successful management. Therefore, it is suggested; a. In order to supply raw materials, the map of recycling units in the whole country should be provided to plastic production units, and centers should be established for the procurement, supply and distribution of raw materials, and to facilitate access to raw materials and reduce the costs of production units in purchasing. Raw materials, the supply network of raw materials should be formed in the centers of the provinces. b. In order to provide machines for production units from knowledge-based companies, university theses in the field of design and mold-making, benefit from new technologies and support domestic technology production should be used. c. By employing specialized and highly educated managers, as well as training specialized and replacement forces in companies and production units, he selected capable managers for the development of the units.