عنوان مقاله [English]
Public policies are diverse in terms of approaches, methods, goals and issues; In many of these policies, the question can be asked how changes in the behavior of individuals and communities can bring benefits and benefits to individuals and society as a whole. Quitting drug addiction and psychotropic substances, saving energy, legality, greater strength and stability of the family institution, political participation, improving driving and traffic behaviors, improving eating habits, helping fellow human beings, maintaining health and preventing diseases and dozens of other behaviors, These are all behavioral issues that can be brought to the attention of policymakers in various fields. The purpose of this study is to identify the components and requirements of public policy implementation with a behavioral approach. The research strategy was a systematic review of the literature and the technique used, content analysis. A total of 376 researches / articles were refined in 4 stages and at the end, 191 researches remained. These articles were extracted from 6 reputable international databases (ScienceDirect, Emerald, Sage, Springer, Wiley and Routledge). According to the findings, 98 meaningful propositions, 126 codes and finally, 8 themes were identified as components of behavioral policy: 1) structuring choices, 2) maintaining freedom and authority, 3) leveraging constraints Cognitive وs and biases, 4) patronage and liberalism, 5) central information, 6) central evidence, 7) manipulation of norms, preferences and beliefs, and 8) social contractism. In addition, 117 meaningful propositions, 133 codes, and finally, 24 themes were identified as executive requirements of behavioral policy. Effective implementation of behavioral policy requires considering 24 requirements, including avoidance of any coercion, precise definition of principles and territory, bias control strategies, application of different methods and disciplines, establishment of policy laboratories and flip units, use of scientists and experts Behavioral, evaluation of efficiency and effectiveness, use of feedback loops, experiments with a sufficient number of subjects, flips do not work always and everywhere, attention to evidence, analysis of the decision-making process, precise definition of the problem, selection of information sources and Appropriate communication channels, awareness of policy makers' intentions and goals, defining the framework for using flips, considering socio-psychological-cultural characteristics, having a policy network, attracting policymakers' support, cooperation of policy stakeholders, being aware of policy stakeholders' preferences Incorporating dynamism and flexibility were ethical considerations and transparency. The proposed mechanisms are, in fact, cognitive bias control strategies, especially for citizens. These biases also affect policymakers. Therefore, they should be warned about possible biases in their decisions. For example, sometimes in policy formulation we see the emergence of a hypothesis that to eliminate or reduce it, more and more diverse variables can be included in the analysis and, consequently, the formulation of behavioral policies. Different scientific methods and disciplines should be used in formulating behavioral policies, because behavioral policy-making is basically a multidisciplinary and multidisciplinary approach. Applying behavioral insights from neuroscience, psychology, design, and behavioral economics to policy development, using field and laboratory research approaches as complementary methods, and integrating different collection methods Evidence is considered action in this regard. Fourth, the establishment of policy laboratories and flip units is an important suggestion to policymakers. Flip units are able to provide a set of solutions that are derived from behavioral insights. For example, at the forefront of using a behavioral approach to change people's behavior in the context of coronary heart disease, the Behavioral Insights Team (UK Government) proposed a "Calm down and Wash Your Hands" campaign. Based on the behavioral insights team modeling, the campaign was able to reduce the death rate from the Corona virus among high-risk groups by one-third. In addition, the establishment of behavioral policy laboratories to implement large-scale pilot projects will help develop effective strategies by flip units.