مرور نظام‌مند ارتباط بین نهادها و توسعه کارآفرینی منطقه‌ای

نوع مقاله : پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری کارآفرینی دانشکده کارآفرینی دانشگاه تهران

2 دانشیار دانشگاه

3 عضور هیات علمی دانشکده کارافرینی دانشگاه تهران

4 استادیار دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

هدف اصلی از انجام پژوهش حاضر شناسایی و تحلیل مطالعات پیشین انجام‌شده درزمینه نهادهای مؤثر بر توسعه فعالیت‌های کارآفرینانه در مناطق مختلف است. برای این منظور با مراجعه با پایگاه گوگل اسکالر مقالات مرتبط با کلیدواژه‌های منتخب را استخراج نموده و به تحلیل آن پرداخته شد. در گام نخست 890 مقاله شناسایی گردید که پس از تصفیه مقالات با روش‌های مختلف، تعداد مقالات قابل تحلیل به 19 مورد تقلیل یافت. در مرحله بعدی با استفاده از استراتژی مرور نظام‌مند، مقالات منتخب را از ابعاد مختلف (نام و نام خانوادگی نویسنده، سال، مسئله اصلی، پارادایم پژوهشی و نظریه مبنا) بررسی نموده و سپس با استفاده از نرم‌افزار اطلس تی. آی، متن مقالات در دو مرحله باز و محوری کدگذاری گردید. در مرحله کدگذاری باز 71 کد و در مرحله کدگذاری محوری 3 کد(سیاست‌گذاری، زیر ساختی، بازار کالا یا زیر ساخت اقتصادی) به دست آمد. طبق یافته-های پژوهش، طبق یافته‌های پژوهش توسعه کارآفرینی منطقه‌ای با مشخصه اصلی رشد و توسعه در تولید ناخالص داخلی، افزایش سطح و سرانه اشتغال در منطقه، افزایش نرخ فعالیت‌های کارآفرینانه و نرخ نوآوری استانی (تعداد پتنت‌های ثبت شده)، در شرایطی محقق می‌گردد که بستر نهادی در کنار عواملی چون 1-سیاست‌گذاری در سه سطح ملی، منطقه‌ای و محلی؛ 2-زیرساخت‌های فیزیکی شامل زیرساخت هوایی، زیرساخت ریلی، زیرساخت جاده‌ای، دسترسی به گاز، دسترسی به آب، دسترسی به برق و غیره و 3- بازار کالاها یا زیرساخت اقتصادی شامل بازار کار منطقه، سرمایه انسانی، ترکیب بنگاه‌ها (SME و بزرگ) و ساختار صنعت منطقه، موجبات تحریک فعالیت‌های کارآفرینانه را فراهم آورد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Systematic review of the relationship between institutions and the development of regional entrepreneurship

نویسندگان [English]

  • bahman khodapanah 1
  • Mohammad ali Moradi 2
  • hamid padash 3
  • Kamal Sakhdari 4
1 PhD Student in Entrepreneurship, Faculty of Entrepreneurship, University of Tehran
2 associate professor
3 Faculty member of the Faculty of Entrepreneurship, University of Tehran
4 assistant professor
چکیده [English]

Over the last two decades, entrepreneurship as a discipline has expanded its boundaries to new areas in managerial learning, public policy design, etc. Although most of the literature is focused on developed countries. However, there is a growing interest in emerging and developing countries to conduct empirical and theoretical research in the field of entrepreneurial activity, which raises the possibility of international comparisons.
Theoretical level research conducted by various disciplines in this field has allowed leading researchers to define the factors affecting entrepreneurial activities as well as the effects that entrepreneurs have on society as the starting point for research in the field of entrepreneurship.
For example; These include the relationship between entrepreneurship and the elements of economicand managerial [56] psychology . According to some authors, there are still many factors that need to be considered in relation to entrepreneurship, for example, formal and informal institutions and the impact on the decisions of individuals to enter into entrepreneurial activity, especially in different regions of the country. In this regard, institutional barriers are likely to describe the gap between the level of entrepreneurial activity in different geographical areas in a given country and also between developed and developing countries (because the first category countries have stable conditions and Institutional quality is appropriate for the development of entrepreneurial activities, while the second category of countries are mainly involved in the informal economy and high levels of corruption) . Regional development is a highly complex process that requires careful planning and optimal allocation of resources by the many institutions and actors that play a role in this process.
The main purpose of this study is to identify and analyze previous studies conducted in the field of institutions affecting the development of entrepreneurial activities in different regions. For this purpose, by referring to Google Scholar database, articles related to selected keywords were extracted and analyzed. In the first step, 890 articles were identified, which after filtering the articles by different methods, the number of analyzable articles was reduced to 19. In the next step, using a systematic review strategy, the selected articles are examined from different dimensions (author's name, year, main issue, research paradigm and basis theory) and then using Atlas T software. The text of the articles was coded in two open and pivotal stages. In the open coding stage, 71 codes were obtained and in the axial coding stage, 3 codes (policy, infrastructure, commodity market or economic infrastructure) were obtained. According to the research findings, according to the research findings, entrepreneurship development is a region with the main characteristics of growth and development in GDP, increasing the level and per capita employment in the region, increasing the rate of entrepreneurial activities and provincial innovation rate (number of patents registered) ), Is achieved in a situation where the institutional context along with factors such as 1- policy-making at three levels: national, regional and local; 2. Physical infrastructure including air infrastructure, rail infrastructure, road infrastructure, gas access, water access, electricity access, etc. 3- Commodity market or economic infrastructure including regional labor market, human capital, enterprise mix (SME and Large) and the structure of the region's industry stimulated entrepreneurial activity.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Entrepreneurship
  • Regional Entrepreneurship
  • Institutional Approach
  • Regional Development
  • تاریخ دریافت: 17 آبان 1400
  • تاریخ بازنگری: 23 بهمن 1400
  • تاریخ پذیرش: 30 بهمن 1400
  • تاریخ اولین انتشار: 16 تیر 1401