عنوان مقاله [English]
Aim and Introduction: Rapid population growth and subsequent increase in demand for food in recent years have led to a dramatic change in traditional agriculture. In this regard, the use of fertilizers and chemical pesticides and planting high-yielding cultivars of agricultural and horticultural species has increased agricultural production. However, this increase in production has been associated with several environmental problems, such as pollution of soil and water resources, the emergence of new plant pests and diseases, and the emergence of malnutrition and disease in humans. (Sumner, 2008). In response to these problems, and with increasing public awareness of health-related issues, the demand for organic products has grown exponentially in the last two decades. Its annual growth rate is much higher than in the conventional food market.
(Cushman & Wakefield, 2017; Sebastian et al., 2020; Lang et al., 2014). In this regard, the problems of industrial foods are being reported in such a way that many people now believe that organic foods are superior and healthier than modern industrial foods.
(Bezawada & Pauwels, 2013; Thøgersen, 2015; Olson et al., 2017). However, studies show that despite such profitable growth, the organic food market can expand much further. These studies show that the main obstacle in this regard is the scepticism of consumers about the claims made in organic food (Bray et al. 2011; D'Souza et al. 2007; MacKenzie, 1991; Peattie, 1995; Schlegelmilch et al. 1996). The reason for this lack of trust is that organic food and its production process are not known to the people and are still new and unknown products to many people. On the other hand, people have been using conventional food, which is industrial, for many years, and that is why they trust it, and changing their consumption orientation towards other types of food products requires gaining new trust. This fact shows that trust plays an essential role in the success of organic food in the market (Sobhanifard & Eshtiaghi, 2020).
Therefore, increasing trust in organic foods in any way possible can improve the consumption of these foods. This trust can benefit both related industries and improve people's health more than before. In this regard, one of the things that can strengthen trust in a product, including organic food, is how these products are packaged. The packaging is the customer's first direct contact with the product and is the first thing the customer sees of the product. In a way, the packaging is responsible for most of the desired or undesirable mental image of the product. The role of packaging design is instrumental in advertising marketing and sales. For each product, including food, it is a certificate to introduce the product. Food packaging focuses mainly on product safety. However, if the packaging itself is not reliable, food safety is a concern (Abreu, Cruz, & Losada, 2012). Therefore, packaging has an undeniable effect on any product, including products. It is organic. In general, considering the growth of organic foods on the one hand and the need to build trust in these products and the effectiveness of packaging on product trust on the other hand, it is necessary to answer the question of how to increase consumer trust through packaging.
This important as a review of the relevant research literature shows that although much research has been done on organic food trust so far (Vega et al., 2018; Thorsoe, 2015; Anisimova, 2016; Ayyub et al., 2018; Khare & Pandey, 2017). Although there has been much research on packaging (Coles et al., 2019; Favier et al., 2019; Thomas & Capelli, 2018; Holmes & Paswan, 2012; Kenneth & McMillin, 2017) so far no research has been done on how to improve trust in organic foods through their packaging. Therefore, for the first time, the present study seeks to identify factors in the design of organic food packaging that can improve consumer trust in organic food.
From a practical point of view, the results of this research can improve the situation of trust in organic food. These results can show what manufacturers of organic food products should do to design the packaging of these products, despite all their efforts, to strengthen trust in these products. The results can lead to the development of their bases and bring them good profits.
Socially, the results of the research increase the peace and trust in food consumption, and as a result, increasing the consumption of these foods, which are healthier than industrial foods, causes the general public and society to benefit from the results of this research.
Methodology: This research has been done in five stages. As mentioned before, in the first stage, using research literature, an attempt was made to search for research concepts. As a result of this step, although information was found on packaging and trust in organic food, research has shown that no study has been done on the effects of design indicators on strengthening consumer trust in organic food. This shortcoming led the research to identify indicators using field research. For this purpose, in the second step, the theoretical saturation approach was used. In this approach, potential and actual consumers of organic food were randomly selected and asked the question, What factors in the packaging make you more trust in organic food?. Respondents, up to 35 people, we can introduce 17 of these factors. Then from 35 to 70, which was twice as useful as the sample, no one could add anything to the 17. Therefore, after 70 people, the announcement was saturated theoretically. The selection of new samples can no longer lead to the discovery of a new factor. Table 1 shows these 17 factors. Then, in the third step, the goal was to determine whether all consumers approve of these 17 factors of organic food. Using a random selection approach, 505 of these people now live in Iran were selected. They asked, To what extent does each of these packaging indicators boost your trust in organic food?. The respondents give their response with a number between 1 and 5. The demographic characteristics of these 505 people are shown in Table 2. In the fourth step of the research, using exploratory factor analysis, we sought to confirm these 17 factors and explore a model using these factors, which the data analysis section has addressed. Finally, in the fifth step, the question was raised that if these 17 factors, which have also been approved for modelling, are to strengthen the trust of consumers of organic foods, which factor should start? For this purpose, using the Friedman test, these 17 factors were ranked according to their importance in building trust in organic food.
Finding: The explored model includes four factors of packaging that have a positive effect on trust in organic foods. These are suitable materials, perfect appearance, information and qualitative credit. Results from the use of the Friedman test indicate that the main variables in packaging design that affect the trust of organic food are: comparative information, nutritional information and health certificate.
Discussion and Conclusion: While most research on building trust for organic food has focused on providing knowledge and information (Samia et al., 2018, Sobhanifard & Eshtiaghi, 2020, Daugbjerg et al. 2014; Vieira et al., 2013; Yin et al., 2010), This research also emphasizes the issue of information and knowledge with a unique packaging case. It considers it as one of the main concepts needed to build trust through packaging. This central concept in this research consists of four variables as four solutions.
Also, Sobhanifard and Eshtiaghi in one of the closest studies to the present study concluded that to build trust in organic food in social networks; it should focus on useful six concepts. They are: experiences, generation of useful content, valid guarantees and certificates, valid information on product benefits, emphasis on naturalness, communication with previous buyers (Sobhanifard & Eshtiaghi, 2020), The present study also concludes that to build trust in organic food through packaging should be focused on suitable material, perfect appearance, information, qualitative credit.
A comparison between the two conclusions shows that both studies share a common emphasis on concepts such as credibility, information delivery, and assurance. This subscription is because packaging, in many cases, plays the same role as messages on social networks. The difference between the results of these two studies is due to the difference in the physical space related to packaging and the virtual and non-physical space of social networks. Comparing this study with other related studies, it is clear that this research has been able to introduce cases specific to packaging and physical space about the factors that create a trust for organic food. Therefore, from this point of view, this research can be valuable. Uniquely known.