تبیین الگوی توسعه رویکرد استاد-شاگردی در تسهیم دانش ضمنی

نوع مقاله : مستخرج از پایان نامه

نویسندگان

1 گروه مدیریت بازرگانی دانشکده مدیریت و حسابداری دانشگاه شهیدبهشتی، تهران، ایران

2 عضو هیات علمی دانشگاه علم و فرهنگ

3 گروه آموزشی علوم تربیتی، کارشناس ارشد آموزش و بهسازی منابع انسانی، دانشگاه علم و فرهنگ تهران

چکیده

هدف و مقدمه: پژوهش حاضر با هدف تبیین امکان‌­سنجی رویکرد استاد-شاگردی برای انتقال و تسهیم دانش ضمنی در تربیت اعضای هیأت علمی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی اجرا شده است: سوال اصلی پژوهش این است که الگوی مناسب توسعه رویکرد استاد-شاگردی در تسهیم دانش ضمنی چگونه است و از چه مؤلفه­هایی تشکیل شده است؟ لذا با استفاده از روش مدل­سازی پویا به بررسی وضعیت مؤلفه­های تسهیم دانش با رویکرد استاد- شاگردی پرداخته شده است. مدل شامل 3 حلقه است؛ حلقه اول تسهیم دانش ضمنی: تولید دانش، نشر دانش، سازماندهی دانش و کاربرد دانش؛ حلقه دوم رویکرد استاد- شاگردی: فرهنگ‌­سازی، سیاست­‌گذاری، ساختاردهی رویکرد استاد- شاگردی، منابع (مالی، نرم­افزاری و سخت‌­افزاری، ICT) و منابع انسانی؛ حلقه سوم زیر مؤلفه‌­های منابع انسانی: اعتماد، .مهارت‌های ارتباطی، هدف­گذاری، ارزیابی عملکرد، تعهد عاطفی، خودکارآمدی برای دانایی مدارکردن نظام آموزشی و پژوهشی مراکز آموزشی است.
روش­‌شناسی: نمونه پژوهش مشتمل بر 265 نفر از اعضای هیأت علمی و 248 نفر از دانشجویان مقطع دکتری دانشگاه شهید بهشتی که به روش طبقه­‌بندی انتخاب شده­اند. نوع پژوهش توصیفی پیمایشی است. در چارچوب مدل مفهومی پژوهش 15 فرضیه مورد آزمون قرار گرفته است. به منظور تعیین روایی پرسشنامه، از نظرات و پیشنهادات صاحب­‌نظران متخصص در حوزه علوم تربیتی استفاده گردید. همچنین با محاسبه پایایی پرسشنامه از روش برآورد ضریب آلفای کرونباخ، اعضای هیأت علمی مقدار عددی 899/0 و دانشجویان دکتری 890/0 به دست آمد که نشان دهنده پایایی قابل قبول پرسشنامه بود. شیوه تجزیه‌وتحلیل داده‌­ها مبتنی بر استفاده از آزمون‌­های استنباطی آماری از قبیل آزمون کولموگراف- اسمیرنف، تی تک نمونه­ای و تحلیل اکتشافی بوده است.
یافته­ها: نتایج پژوهش نشان داد، امکان پیاده‌­سازی رویکرد استاد-شاگردی فرد به فرد برای انتقال و تسهیم دانش در دانشگاه شهید بهشتی از دیدگاه اعضای هیأت علمی و دانشجویان دکتری وجود دارد (001/0 = p). همچنین یافته­‌های پژوهش نشان داد که مؤلفه‌­ها و زیر سازه­‌های الگوی توسعه رویکرد استاد-شاگردی در تسهیم دانش ضمنی از وضعیت مطلوبی برخوردار بوده‌­اند.  
بحث و نتایج: با توجه به تحلیل فرضیه‌­ها و نتایج آنها می‌­توان گفت؛ فرضیه اصلی پژوهش یعنی اجرای رویکرد استاد-شاگردی  از دیدگاه اعضای هیأت علمی با انحراف معیار 458/0 آماره 52/32 و دانشجویان با انحراف معیار521/0 آماره 75/11 موجب تسهیم و انتقال دانش استاد-دانشجو در سطحی بالاتر می­‌شود. این یافته با یافته‌­های سوزان (2016)، زید الحمدان و همکاران (2014)، بتینا و هارم (2014)، مور و همکاران (2014)، پاتل و همکاران (2011)، ویکی و همکاران (2008)، چااو و همکاران (2011)، قلی­‌پور و هاشمی (1394)، محمدی و امینی (1394) که هر یک بر تاثیر برنامه‌­های استاد-شاگردی همسویی دارد. هم چنین نتیجه آزمون‌های مؤلفه‌­های منابع انسانی نشان می­‌دهد از دیدگاه اعضای هیأت علمی و دانشجویان تمامی مؤلفه‌­ها در امکان‌­سنجی وضعیت مطلوبی دارند و شرایط پیاده­‌سازی رویکرد استاد-شاگردی فرد به فرد را در دانشگاه شهید بهشتی فراهم می‌­دا­نند. نتایج این پژوهش که بر مبنای 4 مؤلفه پایگاه دانش 5 مؤلفه رویکرد استاد-شاگردی و 6 زیر مؤلفه منابع انسانی است. و بعد این امکان منجر به بهبود رابطه استاد با دانشجو(رابطه استاد_شاگردی) شده و اعضای هیأت علمی پیشکسوت و با تجربه می‌­توانند در راستای نیاز و تربیت اعضای هیأت علمی جدید گام بزرگی بردارند به دلیل اینکه واقعاً آموزش‌های رسمی و شفافی برای اعضای هیأت علمی جدید خصوصاً در زمینه برقراری ارتباط با دانشجویان، شیوه مدیریت کلاس­داری وجود ندارد. ضمن اینکه با توجه به یافته‌­های این پژوهش مشخص می­‌شود چون خود اعضای هیأت علمی نقش استاد را به صورت مستقیم دارند نشان دهنده این است که دانشگاه دارای ساختار غیررسمی در اجرای برنامه روش استاد-شاگردی است که این خود بزرگ‌ترین مزیت جهت پذیرش روش‌های نوینی به مانند روش منتورینگ و دیگر روش‌های نوین در حوزه منابع انسانی و آموزش عالی گردد.
در پایان با عنایت به نتایج پژوهش امکان پیاده­‌سازی رویکرد استاد-شاگردی، که هم اکنون به شکل یک ساختار غیررسمی در دانشگاه نمونه در حال انجام است، قابلیت تبدیل شدن به ساختار رسمی را دارا باشد. روشی که می‌تواند منجر به نتایج رضایت بخش هم برای استاد و دانشجو و هم الگوی بالندگی، توسعه برای دانشگاه شهید بهشتی گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Explain the pattern of development of the teacher-student approach in sharing tacit knowledge

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Reza Hamidizadeh 1
  • Akbar goldasteh 2
  • elaheh soleimanzadeh 3
1 Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Management and Accounting, Shahid Beheshti Gniversity, Tehran, Iran.
2 Faculty member of the University of Science and Culture
3 Department of Educational Sciences, Master of Education and Improvement of Human Resources, Tehran University of Science and Culture
چکیده [English]

Aim and introduction: The aim of this study is to explain the feasibility of the teacher-student approach for the transfer and sharing of tacit knowledge in teacher education, Shahid Beheshti University: Therefore, using dynamic modeling method, the status of knowledge sharing components with the teacher-student approach has been. The model consists of 3 rings; The first circle: knowledge production, dissemination, organization and application of knowledge; The second: culture-building, policy-making, structuring the teacher-student approach, resources (finance, software and hardware, ICT) and human resources; The third is trust, communication skills, goal setting, performance appraisal, emotional commitment, self-efficacy for knowledge-based educational and research system.
Methodology: The sample consists of 265 faculty members and 248 doctoral students of who have been selected by classification method: The type is descriptive survey. In the framework of the conceptual model of the research, 15 hypotheses have been tested. For the validity of the questionnaire, the opinions and suggestions of experts in the field of educational sciences were used.by calculating the reliability of the questionnaire using Cronbach's alpha coefficient, the numerical value of 0.899 professors and 0.890 doctoral students was obtained, which showed the acceptable reliability of the questionnaire. The data analysis method was based on the use of statistical inferential tests such as Kolmograph-Smirnov test, one-sample t-test and exploratory analysis.
Findings: The results showed that it is possible to implement a person-student approach to transfer and share knowledge in from the perspective of faculty members and doctoral students (p = 0.001). The research findings also showed that the components were in good condition.
Discussion and Conclusion: According to the analysis of hypotheses and their results, it can be said; The main hypothesis of the research is that the implementation of the teacher-student approach from the perspective of faculty members with a standard deviation of 0.458, 32.52 and students with a standard deviation of 0.521, 11.75 causes the sharing and transfer of teacher-student knowledge at a higher level. This finding is consistent with the findings of Susan (2016), Zeid al-Hamdan et al. (2014), Batina and Harm (2014), Moore et al. (2014), Patel et al. (2011), Vicki et al. (2008), Chao et al. (2011), Gholipour and Hashemi (2015), Mohammadi and Amini (2015), each of which is consistent with the impact of teacher-student programs. Also, the results of the tests of human resources components show that from the perspective of faculty members and students, all components are in a good position in feasibility and provide the conditions for implementing the teacher-student approach to Shahid Beheshti University. The results of this research are based on 4 components of the knowledge base, 5 components of the teacher-student approach and 6 sub-components of human resources. And then this possibility leads to the improvement of the professor-student relationship (professor-student relationship) and veteran and experienced faculty members can take a big step towards the needs and training of new faculty members because there is really formal and transparent training for faculty members. There is no new science, especially in the field of communication with students, class management style, etc. In addition, according to the findings of this study, because the faculty members themselves have a direct role of professor, it shows that the university has an informal structure in the implementation of the teacher-student method program, which is the largest Advantage to accept new methods such as mentoring and other new methods in the field of human resources and higher education.
Finally, considering the results of the research, it seems that the possibility of implementing the teacher-student approach, which is currently being done in the form of an informal structure in the model university, has the potential to become a formal structure. A method that may lead to satisfactory results for both professors and students and a growth model, development for Shahid Beheshti University.
Methodology: The sample consists of 265 faculty members and 248 doctoral students of who have been selected by classification method: The type is descriptive survey. In the framework of the conceptual model of the research, 15 hypotheses have been tested. For the validity of the questionnaire, the opinions and suggestions of experts in the field of educational sciences were used.by calculating the reliability of the questionnaire using Cronbach's alpha coefficient, the numerical value of 0.899 professors and 0.890 doctoral students was obtained, which showed the acceptable reliability of the questionnaire. The data analysis method was based on the use of statistical inferential tests such as Kolmograph-Smirnov test, one-sample t-test and exploratory analysis.
Findings: The results showed that it is possible to implement a person-student approach to transfer and share knowledge in from the perspective of faculty members and doctoral students (p = 0.001). The research findings also showed that the components were in good condition.
Discussion and Conclusion: According to the analysis of hypotheses and their results, it can be said; The main hypothesis of the research is that the implementation of the teacher-student approach from the perspective of faculty members with a standard deviation of 0.458, 32.52 and students with a standard deviation of 0.521, 11.75 causes the sharing and transfer of teacher-student knowledge at a higher level. This finding is consistent with the findings of Susan (2016), Zeid al-Hamdan et al. (2014), Batina and Harm (2014), Moore et al. (2014), Patel et al. (2011), Vicki et al. (2008), Chao et al. (2011), Gholipour and Hashemi (2015), Mohammadi and Amini (2015), each of which is consistent with the impact of teacher-student programs. Also, the results of the tests of human resources components show that from the perspective of faculty members and students, all components are in a good position in feasibility and provide the conditions for implementing the teacher-student approach to Shahid Beheshti University. The results of this research are based on 4 components of the knowledge base, 5 components of the teacher-student approach and 6 sub-components of human resources. And then this possibility leads to the improvement of the professor-student relationship (professor-student relationship) and veteran and experienced faculty members can take a big step towards the needs and training of new faculty members because there is really formal and transparent training for faculty members. There is no new science, especially in the field of communication with students, class management style, etc. In addition, according to the findings of this study, because the faculty members themselves have a direct role of professor, it shows that the university has an informal structure in the implementation of the teacher-student method program, which is the largest Advantage to accept new methods such as mentoring and other new methods in the field of human resources and higher education.
Finally, considering the results of the research, it seems that the possibility of implementing the teacher-student approach, which is currently being done in the form of an informal structure in the model university, has the potential to become a formal structure. A method that may lead to satisfactory results for both professors and students and a growth model, development for Shahid Beheshti University.
The results showed that it is possible to implement a person-student approach to transfer and share knowledge in from the perspective of faculty members and doctoral students (p = 0.001). The research findings also showed that the components were in good condition.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Tacit knowledge
  • Sharing Knowledge
  • Base teacher-student
  • Approach human resources
  • Shahid Beheshti University
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