آسیب‌شناسی برنامه‌ریزی استراتژیک در سازمان‌های محلی

نوع مقاله : پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مدیریت دولتی،دانشکده مدیریت و اقتصاد،علوم و تحقیقات تهران،تهران،ایران

2 عضو هیات علمی، دانشگاه علوم وتحقیقات تهران،گروه مدیریت دولتی

چکیده

برنامه‌­ریزی استراتژیک در سازمان­‌های محلی همواره با موانعی روبه­‌رو بوده است که بر کیفیت برنامه­‌ها اثرگذار است. شناسایی و ارائه راه­کار برای آن­ها می‌­تواند بر توسعه جامعه اثرگذار باشد. این پژوهش پیمایش دو هدف توصیف و تبیین را دنبال می‌کند. لذا پژوهش حاضر از یک طرف درصدد است تا آسیب‌های برنامه‌ریزی استراتژیک مشخص سازد، از طرف دیگر چون رابطه میان متغیرهای پژوهش بر اساس هدف پژوهش تحلیل می‌گردد، به تبیین ارتباط میان رویدادها می‌پردازد. در قسمت کیفی پژوهش با استفاده از مصاحبه نیمه­ساختاریافته و مطالعه متون مختلف با روش تحلیل تم 33 زیرمقوله مشخص و در چهار دسته رفتاری، ارتباطی، دانشی و نهادی دسته­بندی شدند. در قسمت کمّی پژوهش برای فازی‌سازی دیدگاه خبرگان از اعداد فازی مثلثی(طیف 9 درجه) استفاده شده است. سپس پرسشنامه­ بر اساس مدل ارائه شده تهیه و در جامعه آماری 133 (نمونه 98 نفر) توزیع شد. براساس نتایج آزمون کولموگروف- اسمیرنوف، با توجه به اینکه مقدار معناداری حداقل یکی از متغیرها کوچک­تر از سطح خطا (05/0) به­دست آمده است، بنابراین توزیع داده‌ها در مجموع نرمال نبود. با توجه به فقدان حساسیت به پیش‌فرض نرمال بودن داده‌ها نرم افزار smart pls، بهترین نرم­افزار معادلات ساختاری برای اجرای مدل است، مدل پژوهش با استفاده از تکنیک حداقل مربعات جزئی آزمون شد. بعد از آن برای بررسی کیفیت یا اعتبار مدل از بررسی اعتبار که شامل شاخص بررسی اعتبار اشتراک و شاخص بررسی اعتبار افزونگی است، استفاده ‌شده است. شاخص‌های برازش مدل پژوهش مثبت و بزرگ‌تر از صفر و می‌توان گفت مدل از کیفیت و اعتبار قابل‌قبولی برخوردار‌است. مقدار شاخص GOF، ۰/۶۱۱  است که شاخصی قوی و نشان از کیفیت بالای کلی مدل دارد. بعد از آن چهار فرضیه تأثیر معنادار آسیب‌های چهارگانه دانشی، رفتاری، ارتباطی و نهادی با برنامه‌ریزی استراتژیک با احتمال ۰/۹۵ رد نشد. در نهایت تحلیل شکاف وضع موجود و مطلوب با توزیع پرسشنامه‌­ای دیگر در جامعه مورد نظر صورت گرفت،که باتوجه به نتایج بین وضع موجود و مطلوب عوامل چهارگانه شکاف معناداری وجود داشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The pathology of strategic planning in local organizations

نویسندگان [English]

  • Behzad Souki 1
  • Reza Najafbeigi 2
  • Karamallah Daneshfard 2
1 Government Management, Faculty of Management and Economics, Science and Research, Tehran, Iran
2 Faculty member, Tehran University of Science and Research, Department of Public Administration
چکیده [English]

Aim and Introduction. Planning is one of the most essential tools for accelerating the growth and development of developing countries, accepted by most experts. Because for various reasons, these countries will be involved in poverty, recession, low and incomplete employment, high inflation, price fluctuations without planning, without any planning. Undoubtedly, the importance of planning in the regions that make up a country is doubly important. Therefore, the distance between Kermanshah metropolis and other metropolises in terms of development and lack of research at the level of local organizations increases the need for this research. The study of Kermanshah province shows that the cities of this province experience different conditions in terms of the level of development indicators. Qasr Shirin is in the first rank compared to other cities of the province, then Kermanshah and in the next ranks (undeveloped cities) are eleven cities of the province. Many officials in Kermanshah acknowledge the lack of a long-term plan for the development of the city and the province, which is the duty of the city council and municipality. Strategic planning in local organizations has always faced obstacles that affect the quality of programs. Identifying and providing solutions for them can affect the development of society.
 
Methodology. This research pursues the two purposes of description and explanation. Therefore, the present study, on the one hand, seeks to identify the disadvantages of strategic planning, on the other hand, because the relationship between research variables analyzed based on the purpose of the research, to explain the relationship between events. In the qualitative part of the research, using semi-structured interviews and studying different texts by theme analysis method, 33 sub-categories were identified and classified into four categories: behavioral, communication, knowledge and institutional. In the quantitative part of the research, triangular fuzzy numbers have been used to fuzzy the experts' point of view. Then the questionnaire was prepared based on the presented model and distributed to 133 statistical population (sample of 98 people). Based on the results of Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, considering that the significance value of at least one of the variables was less than the error level (0.05), so the data distribution was not normal. Due to the lack of sensitivity to the default normality of the data, smart pls software is the best structural equation software to run the model. The research model tested using the partial least squares technique. Then, to check the quality or validity of the model, a validity check used, which includes a subscription validity index and a redundancy validity index. The fit indices of the research model are positive and greater than zero, and then the model has acceptable quality and validity. The value of GOF index is 0.611, which is a strong index and shows the high quality of the model.
 
Findings. After semi-structured interviews with experts and a study, injuries identified. Then 170 keywords and phrases were extracted through theme analysis and 33 indicators discovered through coding and classified into four groups. Four hypotheses the significant effect of the four cognitive, behavioral, communicative and institutional harms with strategic planning with a probability of 0.95 was not rejected. Finally, the analysis of the current and favorable status gap performed by distributing another questionnaire in the target population, which according to the results, there was a significant gap between the status and the desired four factors. The intensity of the effect of knowledge factor on strategic planning calculated to be 0.166 and the probability statistic of the test is 3.518, which is greater than the critical value of t at the error level of 5%, i.e. 1.96 and shows that the observed effect is significant. . Therefore, with 95% confidence, the knowledge factor has a significant effect on strategic planning. The intensity of the effect of the behavioral factor on strategic planning calculated to be 0.259 and the probability statistic of the test is 2.358, which is greater than the critical value of t at the 5% error level of 1.96 and shows a significant effect. Is. Therefore, with 95% confidence, the behavioral factor has a significant effect on strategic planning. Therefore, the intensity of the effect of the communication factor on strategic planning calculated equal to 0.412 and the probability statistic of the test obtained 4.448, which is greater than the critical value of t at the 5% error level, i.e. 1.96, and shows the observed effect. It is meaningful. Therefore, with 95% confidence, the communication factor has a significant effect on strategic planning. Finally, the intensity of the effect of the institutional factor on strategic planning is equal to 0.491 and the probability statistic of the test is 8.727, which shows that the observed effect is significant. Therefore, with 95% confidence, the managerial institutional factor has a significant effect on strategic planning.
Discussion and Conclusion. Dissatisfaction with today's Iranian cities is a common experience of citizens, professionals and managers. The popular view of this issue is only looking for a solution to it. However, the city is the supreme product of human civilization, which emerges under the influence of innumerable components, and accepting the excessive influence of one factor in this field is in fact a kind of neglect of the issue. Among the important factors affecting the construction of Iranian cities, the system governing the preparation, approval and management of urban development plans has a significant share. The power structure in society, managers 'view of citizens' rights, city space in the eyes of people and decision makers, city maps and other such components play an important role in explaining how and what the planning system is. Examining the factors affecting strategic planning in general indicates the distance of the strategic planning system.
 The desired conditions achieved by correcting the injuries identified in this study through related organizations. According to the research results, the model presented in this study consists of four factors and a total of 33 indicators were identified, which were divided into four categories of knowledge with 4 indicators, behavioral with 10 indicators, communication with 8 indicators and institutional with 11 indicators. This model was the basis model for analyzing the current and desired situation. After performing the gap analysis, 26 indicators identified as damage because the current situation of these indicators is a significant distance from the desired situation and is far from the desired situation. The share of knowledge factors is three indicators, behavioral factors are eight indicators, communication factors are 6 indicators and institutional factors are nine indicators.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • "local organizations"
  • "cognitive factors"
  • "behavioral factors"
  • "communication factors"
  • "institutional factors"
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