الگویی برای همسویی راهبرد عملیات و راهبرد کسب و کار در سازمانهای تولیدی ایران

نوع مقاله: علمی-

نویسندگان

1 استاد مدعو، دکتری مدیریت بازرگانی، دانشگاه آزاداسلامی واحدعلوم وتحقیقات تهران

2 استادیار، دکتری مهندسی صنایع،دانشگاه آزاداسلامی واحدعلوم وتحقیقات تهران

3 استادیار، دکتری سیستمهای عصبی مصنوعی،دانشگاه آزاداسلامی واحدعلوم وتحقیقات تهران

4 دانشجوی دکتری مدیریت صنعتی،دانشگاه آزاداسلامی واحدعلوم وتحقیقات تهران

چکیده

راهبرد در سه سطح کلان شرکت، واحدهای کسب وکاروبخش‌های وظیفه‌ای تعریف می‌شود. چگونگی همسویی این سه سطح برای موفقیت سازمانها اهمیت دارد. یکی ازواحدهای وظیفه ای که مسئولیت تولید محصولات رابه عهده دارد عملیات است.حال سؤال آن است که همسویی راهبرد عملیات با راهبردی کسب وکار راچگونه می‌توان ایجاد کرد. بدین منظورالگویی ارایه می‌شود که باآن به چگونگی انجام همسویی پاسخ داده شود. الگو ازسازه‌های راهبرد کسب وکار، ابعاد رقابتی وحوزه‌های تصمیمات راهبردی عملیات تشکیل شده است. برای تبیین الگو ابتدا این سؤال مطرح است که باتوجه به نوع راهبرد کسب وکار کدام بعد رقابتی انتخاب می‌شود و سپس براساس بعدرقابتی منتخب راهبردهای عملیات مناسب کدامند. برای پاسخ به این سؤالات 160 شرکت در صنایع غذایی و شیمیایی انتخاب و مورد تحقیق قرارگرفته‌اند. تحقیق از منظر هدف، کاربردی است. برای تحلیل داده‌ها نیز، ابتدابا روش توصیفی-پیمایشی، نوع راهبرد کسب وکار، بعد رقابتی و راهبرد عملیات مورد استفاده هر شرکت در نمونه آماری مشخص گردید. سپس با استفاده از روش توصیفی- همبستگی، ارتباط بین آنها مشخص شد تا مدل عملیاتی همسویی به دست آید. برای به دست آوردن روابط همسویی، مراحلی تدوین شده که برآن اساس برای هر شرکت یک کد و بر اساس مشابهت کدها 25گونه همسویی مشخص شد. نتایج بیانگر آن است که عملکرد شرکتها با توجه به گونه همسویی راهبرد آنها متفاوت می‌باشد .به عبارت دیگر همسویی در بین شرکتهای موفق وناموفق به شکل معناداری متفاوت است. از25 گونه همسویی با در نظر گرفتن عملکرد، هفت‌گونه همسویی مناسب تشخیص داده شد و از آنها برای تبیین الگوی عملیاتی همسویی استفاده شد. نتایج همچنین از رویکرد مصالحه درابعاد رقابتی حمایت می‌کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

A Model for Aligning Operation Strategy and Business Strategy in The Iranian Industrial Organizations

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sohrab Khalili Shavariny 1
  • Jamshid Nazemi 2
  • Mahmod Alborzi 3
  • Hossain Salimian 4
1 Islamic Azad University،Sience and Reserch Branch,Tehran
2 Islamic Azad University،Sience and Reserch Branch
3 Islamic Azad University،Sience and Reserch Branch,Tehran
4 Islamic Azad University, Sience and Reserch Branch,Tehran
چکیده [English]

Strategy is defined in three levels: corporate level, business level and functional level. Aligning these three levels is important for the success of organization. Operation is one of the functional units which respond to produce products. The main question research is how to make alignment between operation and business strategy. In order to answer this question, representing a model is requisite. The model consists of business strategy, competitive priorities and operation strategic decision area constructs. For explaining alignment model, the first question is: according to kind of business strategy, which competitive priority is selected and then according to selected competitive priorities, which operation strategies are suitable? To answer these questions, the data was collected from 160 companies in food and chemical industries were selected and were studied. With regard to aim, this article is applied. For analyzing of data, by using a descriptive-survey method the kind of business strategy, competitive priorities and operation strategy was determined, then by descriptive-correlation method, the relation between them was determined. For obtaining the alignment relation a methodology were generated and based on an alignment code for per company and also 25 alignment types were identified. Results show that company's performance is different which considers their performance. In another word alignment is differ between successful and unsuccessful companies. Which after considering their performance, seven types of alignment were distinguished as being suitable. These types were used to develop the operational alignment model. This study also supports the   trade-offs approach to competitive priorities.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Business strategy
  • Operation strategy
  • aligning
  • Competitive priority
  1. Alegre-Vidal, J., Lapiedra-Alcami, R., & Chiva-Gomez, R. (2004). Linking operations strategy and product innovation: an empirical study of Spanish ceramic tile producers. Research Policy , 33 (5), 829-839.
  2. Beckman, S., & Rosenfield, D. (2008). Operation Strategy. McGraw-Hill Press.
  3. Bowman, C., & Faulkner, D. (1997). Competitive and corporate strategy. London: Irwin.
  4. Boyer, K. K., & McDermott, C. (1999). Strategic consensus in operations strategy. Journal of Operations Management , 17, 289-305.
  5. Brown, S., & Blackmon, K. (2005). Aligning manufacturing strategy and business level competitive strategy in new competitive environments: The case for strategic resonance. Journal of Management Studies , 42 (4), 793-815.
  6. Buffa, E. S. (1984). Meeting the competitive challenge. Homewood, IL: Dow Jones-Irwin.
  7. Dangayach, G. S., & Deshmukh, S. (2001). Implementation of manufacturing strategy:a select study of Indian process companies. Production Planning and Control , 12, 89-105.
  8. Davis, R. A., & Vokurka, R. J. (2005). Effect of Facility Size on Manufacturing Structure and Performance. Industrial Management and Data Systems. 105 (8), 1022-1038.
  9. Economides.N. (1997). Quality choice and vertical integration. International Journal of Industrial Organization , 14, 903-914.
10. Ferdows, K., &  De Meyer, A. (1990). Lasting Improvements in Manufacturing  Performance: In search of a new theory. Journal of Operations Management, 9 (2), 168-84.

11. Fine, A. C., & Hax, C. H. (1985). Manufacturing strategy: a methodology and an illustration. Interfaces , 15 (6), 28-46.

12. Grant, R. M. (2008). Contemporary Strategy Analysis. Blackwell publishing.

13. Hayes, R. j., Wheelwright, S. C., & Clark, K. B. (1988). Daynamic Manufacturing:Creating the Learning Organization. New York,NY: Free Press.

14. Hayes, R., & Wheelwright, S. C. (1985). Restoring our Competitive Edge: Competing through Manufacturing. Boston: John Wiley & Sons,141

15. Hayes, R., Pisano, G., Upton, D., & Wheelwright, S. (2005). Operations, Strategy and Technology: Pursuing the Competitive Edge, : . New York: John Wiley.

16. Heizer, J., & Render, B. (1993). Production and Operation Management. Allyn and Bacon.

17. Hill, C. (1988). Differentiation vs.low cost or differentiation and low cost:A contingency framework. Academy of Management Review , 3 (3), 401-412.

18. Hill, T. (1995). Manufacturing Strategy:Text and cases. Basingstoke: Macmillan.

19. Johonson, G., & Scholes, K. (2002). Exploring Corporate Strategy (6 ed.). London: Prentice Hall.

20. Joshi, M. P., Kathuria, R., & Porth, R. J. (2003). Alignment of strategic priorities and performance: an integration of operations and strategic management perspectives. Journal of Operations Managemen , 21, 352-369.

21. Kaplan, R. S., & Norton, D. P. (2006). Alignment-using the Balanced Scorecard to Create Corporate Synergies. Harvard Business School Press.

22. Kim, J. S., & Arnold, P. (1996). Operationalising manufacturing strategy:an exploratory study of constructs and linkage. International Journal of operation & Production Management , 16 (12), 47-73.

23. Konijnendijk, P. A. (1993). Dependence and conflict between production and sales. Industrial Marketing Management , 22, 161-167.

24. Kotha, S., & Orne, D. L. (1989). Generic Manufacturing Strategies: A Conceptual Synthesis. Strategic Management Journal , 10, 211-231.

25. Leong, G. K., Snyder, D., & Ward, P. T. (1990). Research in the process and content of manufacturing strategy. OMEGA , 8 (2), 109- 122.

26. Miles, R. E., & Snow, C. C. (1978). Organizational strategy, structure, and process. New York: McGraw-Hill.

27. Miller, J., & Roth, A. V. (1994). A Taxonomy of Manufacturing Strategy. Management Science 40 , 3, 285-303.

28. Miltenburg, J. (2005). Manufacturing strategy: how to formulate and implement a winning plan (2 ed.). Productivity press.

29. Motwani, J., Larson, L., & Ahuja.S. (1998). Managing a Global Supply Chain Partnership. Logistics Information Managemen , 11 (6), 349-354.

30. Porter, M. (1985). Competitive Advantag. New York: Free Pres.

31. Porter, M. E. (1980). Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors. New York: Free Press.

32. Porter, M. E. (1996). What is Strategy? Harvard Business Review.

33. Rhee, M., & Mehra, S. (2006). Aligning operations, marketing and competitive strategies to enhance performance: an empirical test in the retail banking industry. Omega-The International Journal of Management Science , 34, 505-515.

34. Shroder, R. G., Goldstein, S., & Rungtusanatham, M. (2011). Operation Management. Mc Grow-Hill press.

35. Skinner, W. (1969). Manufacturing-missing link in corporate strategy. Harward Business Review , 47 (3), 136-145.

36. Slack, N., & Lewis, M. A. (2001). Operations Strategy. London, UK: Financial-Times Prentice Hall.

37. Slack, N., & Lewis, M. (2011). Operation Strategy (3 ed.). Prentice Hall.

38. Stevenson, W. J. (2009). Operation Management. McGraw-Hill Press.

39. Swamidass, P. M., & Newell, W. T. (1987). Manufacturing strategy, environmental uncertainty and performance:A path analytic model. Management Science , 33 (4), 509-524.

40. Treacy, M., & Wiersma, F. (1993). Customer intimacy and other value discipline. Harvard Business Review , January-February, 84-93.

41. Venkatraman, N. (1989). The concept of fit in strategy research: Toward verbal and statistical correspondence. Academy of Management Review , 14, 423-444.

42. Venkatraman, N., & Remanujman, V. (1986). Measuring of Business Performance in Strategy Reserch:a Comparison Approches. Academy of Management Review , 11, 801-814.

43. Voss, C. A. (1995). Alternative paradigms for manufacturing strategy. International Journal of Operations and Production Management , 15, 5-16.

44. Ward, P. T., Bickford, D. J., & Leong, G. K. (1996). Configurations of manufacturing strategy, business strategy, environment and structure. 22,. Journal of Management , 22, 597–626.

45. Ward, P., McCreery, J., & Anand, G. (2007). Business strategies and manufacturing decisions,An emprical examination of linkages. International Journal of Operation & Production Management , 27 (9), 951-973.

46. Wheelen, T., & Hunger, D. (2000). Strategic Management and Business Policy (7 ed.). prentice hall.

47. Wheelwrigh, S. (1978). Reflecting corporate strategy in manufacturing decisions. BusinessHorizons , February, 57-66.

48. Williams, F., D’Souza, D., Rosendfeldt, M., & Kassaee, M. (1995). Manufacturing strategy, business strategy and firm performance in a mature industry. Journal of Management , 13 (1), 19–33.